Solar panels

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Solar panels explained

How does a solar PV (photovoltaic) system work?

Certain materials can be made to produce electricity when light falls on them; this is called the photovoltaic effect. Solar panels use this effect to convert energy from sunlight into direct current (DC) electrical energy. An inverter unit then changes this into alternating current (AC) for your home’s electrical circuits. Any excess energy can be fed back to the electricity grid, for which you may be paid an agreed feed-in tariff, or it could be fed into a battery storage system so you can use the stored power later (at night, for instance).

Solar panels work best when they’re north facing, pointed directly at the sun, at an optimal angle and not blocked by trees or shading. The effectiveness of solar panels also depends on where you live and the weather.

Cells, modules, panels and arrays

Most solar cells are made of silicon. Solar panels, also called modules, are each made of several solar cells, connected together and sandwiched between protective glass and a backing plate, the whole panel usually surrounded with an aluminium frame. All the tested panels have 60 cells except the Sunpower which has 96. The solar panels we’re testing weigh around 18 to 19kg each. A typical installation includes several panels connected together in an array.

Types of solar panel

Monocrystalline panels are typically black in colour and have a reputation for higher efficiency than multi-crystalline (or polycrystalline) models, which are typically dark blue and are sometimes said to have better temperature tolerance (see efficiency below). The differences come from the manufacturing processes of the silicon cells in each case. In practice there’s not necessarily a clear advantage either way; as with most high-tech products, solar panels are a complex assembly of many components and the overall performance depends on more than simply the type of cell.

Interdigitated back contact solar cells (IBC), or rear contact solar cells, are a variant of standard solar cells. They can achieve higher efficiency by having all the electrical contacts on the rear of the cell (rather than at the front), so there are no metal contact strips preventing light getting to the cell surface. The Sunpower panel in our test uses IBC cells.

Thin film solar cells are made from a thin layer of photovoltaic material (such as amorphous silicon, cadmium telluride or copper-indium-gallium-selenide) on a base plate of glass, metal or other substance. This technology is evolving and while it promises more flexible applications than standard solar panels, it’s so far generally less efficient and is rare in rooftop arrays. It’s used in various large and small applications, from building-integrated PV systems to solar-powered calculators and garden lamps.

Efficiency

This is simply a measure of the panel’s electricity output (in watts) compared to its surface area. Generally, the higher the efficiency, the more power you can get from a given roof area, and you might have lower installation costs too. However, if you have plenty of roof space, you might find it more economical to buy cheaper panels with lower efficiency and just use more of them.

This may come as a surprise, but although solar panels are meant to sit on roofs in direct sunlight, they actually become less efficient as they get warmer, due to the physics of the photovoltaic effect. So you’ll sometimes get less power from the panels on a very hot day than on a mild day (and remember, even on a 25°C day, your rooftop panels could be operating at well above 40°C). Solar panel power ratings are based on standard conditions (25°C panel temperature). Some panels have better temperature tolerance than others (look for a lower ‘temperature coefficient’) and are therefore a better choice in hot climates. Correct installation is also important; that’s why panels should be installed in a way that allows air to circulate underneath the panels to help keep them cooler.

How much panel capacity do you need?

Nowadays you don’t make much money from feeding electricity back into the grid. So you want to maximise your own use of your solar PV and minimise your export into the grid.

Unless you’re able to get (increasingly rare) high feed-in tariffs or store your surplus energy using (still expensive) batteries, to get a system that is going to pay for itself quickly, you need to calculate how much electricity you use in your home during daylight hours when your panels are generating at their peak and match the size of your system to that consumption pattern. You can find useful information about your energy use by looking at the previous year’s energy bills.

If you don’t consume much energy during the day then you’ll want a smaller system. If you do, you’ll want a bigger one.

It might seem logical to choose panels with higher rated output, but there’s more to putting an array together than the panel’s power rating alone. The amount of space available on your roof, especially on the prime north-facing section, is also important. The panels in our solar panel reviews are each about 1.6 square metres in area, but the higher their nominal power rating (and actual power output, of course), the fewer panels you need to make up a system of a given power output (or conversely, the more powerful the array you can install). 

For example, to make the theoretical 1000W array mentioned above, you could use four 250W Jinko panels, taking up 6.5m2 of roof space, but four 327W Sunpower panels would take up the same overall area and form a 1308W array. So, more power for the area used, though the Sunpower panels are also more expensive. Fewer panels can also mean a quicker installation. It’s important to compare prices for whole systems, not just the panels.

And as you’ll see in the review, while the panels are of similar area, they do vary a bit in length and width, so if your roof space is limited, some of the panels might be a better fit than others.

Warranty period for solar panels

Manufacturer warranties range up to 25 years. Solar systems should last at least that long, so you look for an installer who’s offering a warranty or guarantee for that length of time.

The solar panels we’ve chosen for our test have 25-year performance warranties (typically warranting that the panel will still produce at least 80% of its claimed power rating after 25 years) plus a 10 to 12 year warranty for the product itself. An installer may also give warranties for the mounting frame, workmanship and so on. Sunpower is an exception, with a 25-year warranty for both performance and product, and higher performance criteria in the warranty.

How much do solar panels cost?

The cost of a solar PV system will depend on many variables including the system size and the quality of components used. According to the Alternative Energy Association (ATA), the overall average cost of a fully installed 2.0kW system, before rebates and discounts, in 2013 was roughly $4400. But larger systems will cost more – in our 2014 solar survey, we found on average our members paid $8243 after all rebates and discounts. This price difference could probably be accounted for by system size – 90% of those surveyed had systems over 2.0kW, with 49% installing systems of over 4.1kW.

Storing solar energy in a battery

You may want to consider a system that includes battery storage, so you can store the electricity generated in daytime by the solar panels for later use at night. See our articles on the Tesla Powerwall and its payback time.

Which brand to choose?

Solar panels are a long term investment so it is important to pick a brand you trust. The most popular brands in the UK are Canadian Solar, Yingli, Sharp, Solarworld, and Suntech Solar.

It is important that your installer is MCS accredited regardless of which brand you choose, otherwise you will not be eligible for the Feed-in tariff.

Is every PV panel the same?

As long as you stick to the big brand names, you shouldn’t find a great difference in quality as most solar panels are made with similar materials and components. There isn’t much variation on price either. What is important is the type of PV panel you opt for and that will depend on your home and your specific needs.

Is the most efficient panel best?

This depends on what is most important to you: producing the most electricity or achieving the best

return on your investment. The most efficient solar panels also tend to be the most expensive. Their additional savings and Feed-in Tariff earnings are often less than the additional cost. It’s important to compare cost versus earnings when choosing the best system for your home.

Comparison of leading solar panels

Below is a comparison of some of the most popular solar panels used by installers in the UK. These offer a balance in terms of efficiency versus cost – remember the return on investment should be your main selection criteria when comparing the leading brands:

How do I find the best installation for my home?

Step 1 – Click your location on the map below to get your FREE quote.

Step 2 – Once you answer a few simple questions, compare quotes in your area to find the best deal!

Reviews of the best systems

We recommend that you opt for one of the trusted brands we mentioned above. All these manufacturers have a proven track record on performance and reliability. You can rest assured knowing that they have millions of happy customers in the UK and across the world. They also have lengthy product warranties and performance guarantees.

Despite most of the leading brands manufacturing outside of the UK, they all comply with MCS regulations in the UK. Leading Asian manufacturers such as Yingli, Trina Solar, JinkoSola and ReneSola offer industry leading panels and can be found in our list of the best solar panel brands above. Their solar panels have been installed in tens of thousands of homes in the UK and have an impeccable record.

As long as you opt for a leading brand, your choice of installer and the price you pay for your solar panels is more important than your choice of manufacturer. You must use an MCS accredited installer to qualify for the Feed-in Tariff; this will provide you with regular cash payments over 20 years for producing renewable energy.

How important is the efficiency and size of solar panels?

Solar panel efficiency is as much about value for money as anything else. If you have space for a long row of solar panels on your roof you may well opt for the less efficient but overall cheaper option, and that’s not necessarily the wrong decision to take. All solar energy will save you money over time, it’s just that some options will take longer to pay your initial expenditure back than others. Your decision depends partly on what you have in the bank and what you’re willing to pay up front for your solar panels.

Solar cell efficiency

The main component of a solar panel is its solar cell, so in choosing the most efficient solar panel overall, it’s worth getting to grips with the efficiency records of some of the best providers. Doing this kind of research will ensure that you are well informed on the best solar panel providers and will help you to decide which one is best for your home.

When shopping around, ask your providers which solar cells they use and what their efficiency levels are. The following three producers make solar cells for commercial and industrial use, so they’ll be more powerful than the cells used in your residential solar panels but provide a useful efficiency guideline nonetheless.

Fraunhofer solar cells are 44.7% efficient, and belong to the expensive and non-residential concentrator triple-junction solar cell category. These cells are used by organizations like NASA.

Sharp solar cells come in at 37.9% efficiency. They are triple-junction, non-concentrator solar cells, and they’re different to Fraunhofer cells because Sharp solar cells don’t do anything to concentrate the light hitting the solar cells, while the more expensive Fraunhofer cells do.

Solar cells by Spanish solar research institute IES and university (UPM) are 32.6% efficient. These solar cells fall into the two-junction, concentrator solar cell category.

Inverter Efficiency

When it comes to inverter efficiency, most units are comparatively similar. Look for a peak efficiency figure of 98%.

What is more important is the actual specification of your product relative to where it will be sited and the job you want it to do. Look for special features that you can benefit from.

For example, do you have a small installation area that will benefit from smaller, more powerful panels? Do you want an installation that can be upgraded easily at a later date? Do you want to sell power back to your local grid?

These are all issues that should influence the PV system you choose.

Don’t forget the warranty. Most manufacturers should give you a guarantee that your units will be operating at around 80% even after 20 years.

Does size matter?

If you have a small roof, then you’ll need solar panels that can produce more power per square foot. Monocrystalline cells will probably be your best option here. It’s also important to take into consideration other factors such as the type of roof, the weight of the system and, of course, local planning laws.

COMPARE PRICES

Mono Vs Polycrystalline Vs Thin Film panels

Thin Film Solar Cells (TFSC) – Consisting of one to several layers of cells on each panel, the TFSC market is growing rapidly, as they can be mass produced relatively cheaply. They come with a unique advantage in that excessive temperatures and shade have less impact on their efficiency. However, they do require a

lot of space, so aren’t suitable for every residential application.

Monocrystalline Solar Cells – These have the highest efficiency rates, since they are made from high-grade silicon. As a result, they need less space and should last longer than other cells.

Polycrystalline Solar Cells – Less silicon is wasted during the manufacturing process, so these can be made more cheaply. The downside is that they do not perform as well at high temperatures as their monocrystalline counterparts.

How to compare solar panels

Each make and model of solar panel will have a slightly different power output and efficiency rating and so will produce different amounts of electricity.

Solar panels with a greater power output and efficiency rating may initially be more expensive, but will generate more electricity and earn you more money under the Feed-in tariff scheme.

The below table shows how different solar panels will earn you different amounts of money depending on their annual output.

Finding the MCS accredited prices

Yingli, Sanyo, Solarworld, Mitsubishi, Schott, First Solar, Sanyo, Suntech and Kyocera all manufacture Microgeneration Certification Scheme (MCS) approved solar panels capable of earning home owners and commercial enterprises cash for the electricity they generate under the Feed-in-Tariff (FiT). FiTs were introduced by the UK government in April 2010 to encourage consumers to switch from the use of unsustainable energy to solar power.

Finding your MCS installer

Your choice of installer is probably your single most important decision. Choose the right installer and you’ll get the expertise you need for the best system for your home. If you’ve done some research and understand the basics, then your first meeting with your installer should let you know whether or not they’re right for the job. After all, you should have some idea of the best type of system for your home and have a ballpark area for pricing. After a site survey, your installer should then be able to advise you of any problems you might encounter and recommend the best solutions.

Make sure you ask the questions, such as how many kilowatt-hours your system will produce over the course of the year, and get a full breakdown of costings, so there’s no hidden charges tagged on later. This way, you can see how long it will be until your recoup your investment and start making real savings on your electricity.

1. Hanwha SolarOne

Based in China, Hanwha SolarOne was formed when Solarfun merged with HanWha Chemical in 2010. The company has expanded their product line and they currently sell around 5 million panels a year,

most of which are used in residential installations.

HSL 60 Mono Module

The HSL Mono Module is the most powerful of Hanwha SolarOne’s PV panels and is able to reach a peak power level of 265W in peak conditions.

Pros and Cons

The panel is the most powerful of the HanWha SolarOne range, meaning it is ideal for those who want to get the most from their installation. Each panel comes with a 12 year warranty, though the performance warranty stretches to 25 years.

On the negative side it’s amongst the heaviest of the panels offered by the company, which will need to be a consideration in regards to the amount of weight that can be placed on it your roof.

Specs

Dimensions: 1652mm × 1000mm
Power Output: Up to 265W
Weight: 20kg
Cell Size: 156mm × 156 mm
Amount of Cells Used: 60

Efficiency

The panel offers the industry standard of 16% efficiency when placed in a standard testing environment. This efficiency level may be reduced in practice, depending on the conditions.

Durability

The panel is extremely durable and can withstand heavy loads of snow. essentially this means that ity can stand up to most harsh weather conditions, excluding natural disasters.

Conclusion

The HSL 60 Mono Module doesn’t do anything spectacularly well in terms of efficiency or output. However, it has a long guarantee period and is one of the sturdiest panels on the market.

2. JA Solar

Formed in 2005, JA Solar has expanded rapidly thanks, in part, to agreements and subsidies from the Chi

nese government. The company is currently moving into areas that are not typical for solar, such as Fiji, to continue their expansion.

JAC M6SF-3 (Cypress2) Module

The JAC M6SF-3 module is amongst the most powerful panels offered by the company and offers a nearly unrivalled level of efficiency.

Pros and Cons

The panel is extremely efficient, with figures from the company’s product specification sheet stating the panel can achieve efficiency levels between 18.4% and 19.5% in standard test conditions.

However, the module is smaller than many of its contemporaries and is also a little more fragile. While this won’t be an issue in most cases, in times of heavy weather problems may be caused.

Specs

Dimensions: Dependent on amount of cells used
Power Output: Up to 265W
Weight: Dependent on panel size
Cell Size: 156mm × 156 mm
Amount of Cells Used: Dependent on panel size

Efficiency

With an efficiency level that can reach higher than 19% in optimal conditions, the JAC M6SF-3 module is amongst the best on the market today. While the price often reflects this, it is certainly a worthy investment for those who want the most effective system.

Durability

The panel is perhaps a little less sturdy than its contemporaries, though in most cases this shouldn’t be an issue. However, it should be taken into account if the installation is to be done in an area that experiences difficult weather conditions.

Conclusion

The panel is one of the best on the market for sheer efficiency, though this is tempered somewhat by the fact that it is not as sturdy as some of its rivals.

The company is shifting its focus more to the solar panel market now, having previously been more invested in the solar cell market.

3. Kyocera

Kyocera already had a reputation as one of Japan’s largest producers of electronics before entering the solar market. They are known for innovation in regards to the development of solar in cars and other products.

kyocera’s KD315GX-LPB Top module offers a lot of power that is complemented by an extremely high level of durability.

Pros and Cons

The panel is amongst the most powerful on the market when it comes to pure wattage, which makes it ideal for homes that use a lot of electricity.

Keep in mind that the panels are quite heavy, which needs to be taken into account during installation, and the Kyocera website does not have a live chat function so if you have a question for the manufacturer you may have to wait a while for your answer.

Specs

Dimensions: 1662mm x 1320mm
Power Output: Up to 315W
Weight: 27.5kg
Cell Size: Information not provided
Amount of Cells Used: Information not provided

Efficiency

The panel offers 16% efficiency in standard testing conditions, which places it at the industry standard level. Performance is improved by proper positioning of the panel and also remedying any build-up of dirt that rain doesn’t remove.

Durability

The panel is built to last and comes with a long life guarantee and the standard 25 year performance guarantee that most good solar panels now have. The panel itself is quite heavy and will be able to withstand most conditions.

Conclusion

This panel is for those who want to achieve a higher level of wattage. It isn’t one of the most efficient panels out there, but it does achieve the industry standards and is great for those with high power requirements.

4. ReneSola

ReneSola work with a number of other prominent solar manufacturers from their base in China.

They currently have a healthy relationship with JA Solar. The company is most known for the development of multicrystalline wafers in recent years, but their standard PV offerings are also of a high quality.

ReneSola 275W Monocrystalline Solar Panels

ReneSola offers a range of mono and polycrystalline solar panels, with the 275W mono version being the best of the lot.

Pros and Cons

The panels have a high power output and are amongst the most efficient on the market as they exceed industry standards by around 1%.

Bear in mind that for large scale orders the company will usually require time to manufacture the panels, as they don’t keep a very large stock of them. Manufacturing time is fairly short but must be considered for orders of 250 panels or more.

Specs

Dimensions: 1640mm x 992mm
Power Output: Up to 275W
Weight: 19kg
Cell Size: 156mm x 156mm
Amount of Cells Used: 60

Efficiency

While not the most efficient panel in this list, the ReneSola 275W Monocrystalline solar panel is more efficient than the industry standard of 16%. In standard testing conditions it is able to reach an efficiency level of just under 17%.

Durability

Despite being one of the lighter panels on the market, it is rather durable and has a mechanical load capability of 5400 Pa. They also come with a 10 year materials warranty in addition to the standard 25 year performance warranty.

Conclusion

This is one of the best panels on the market, combining high efficiency with good power output. Furthermore, the fact that it is so light makes it easier to install and allows for weaker roofs to have a

solar installation.

5. First Solar

First Solar are widely considered to be the foremost manufacturer of solar panels in the United States.

The company built a reputation on early innovations in the field and has since grown to the point where it sells 7 million panels every year.

First Solar Series 4 Panel

First Solar are constantly redesigning their panels to match the latest installation techniques, with the Series 4 having been designed with 1500V system architecture in mind.

Pros and Cons

The panel has been rigorously tested and holds a number of certifications to demonstrate that it exceeds industry standards in most areas.

Having said that, the panels are generally smaller and less powerful than those offered by many other companies, though this is offset by the superior quality in some respects.

Specs

Dimensions: 1200mm x 600mm
Power Output: Approx 100W
Weight: 12kg
Cell Size: Information not provided
Amount of Cells Used: Information not provided

Efficiency

The panel reaches and even exceeds industry standards in the majority of cases. The company has obtained a variety of certifications to demonstrate this fact and they confidently proclaim that the panels are 8% more efficient than those of equivalent size and power.

Durability

Again the panels have been rigorously tested so they are extremely durable and will be more than adequate for standard use.

Conclusion

The panel has a lot going for it when it comes to the quality of the build and the efficiency levels it offers.

However the lower power levels could be an issue for larger homes so the panel should mostly be used for properties that don’t have high energy requirements.

6. Jinko Solar

Jinko Solar is a major manufacturer based in China and they take their commitments to superior energy efficiency quite seriously. The company works on a lot of large scale projects but also supplies solar panels for residential use.

Solaredge Smart Module

Jinko are currently looking to move beyond basic panels and into smart panels that maintain energy generation levels more effectively.

Pros and Cons

The module is amongst the most advanced on the market and this is reflected in its performance. While most solar panels maintain a good level of performance over time, the Solaredge generally edges it when it comes to long term performance.

However, the technology is still fairly new. This places these panels on the more expensive side of things for residential installations.

Specs

Dimensions: 1650mm x 992mm
Power Output: Between 255-315W
Weight: 19.7kg
Cell Size: 156mm x 156mm
Amount of Cells Used: 60

Efficiency

The module reaches around 16.5% efficiency in standard testing conditions but the true test comes when the panel begins to compensate for underperforming cells. In the case of standard panels this will see a dip in efficiency, whereas the Solaredge is more able to handle the situation.

Durability

The module is able to disconnect automatically if there are issues with health and safety compliance. Furthermore, as the module features power optimization technology, there are more options when it comes to installation.

Conclusion

The Solaredge is the panel for those who want to be a little bit ahead of the curve or live in areas where standard panels will not deliver optimal energy levels. For others it may be best to stick with standard panels or perhaps wait until smart panels approach the level where they are ubiquitous.

7. Sharp

Sharp is an internationally recognized electronics brand that has also been researching solar energy since the late 1950s.

This makes them one of the pioneers for solar power and they are still near the top of the industry today.

Sharp ND-R250A5 Module

The company currently offers two panels in its polycrystalline range, with the ND-R250A5 being the more powerful of the two.

Pros and Cons

With Sharp’s experience in the solar industry you can guarantee a level of quality in panel manufacture. Furthermore they are a trusted brand that many will feel comfortable with.

Having said these, this panel is one of the least efficient on this list and will not be as effective in areas that do not have optimal conditions.

Specs

Dimensions: 1652mm x 994mm
Power Output: Up to 250W
Weight: 19kg
Cell Size: 156mm x 156mm
Amount of Cells Used: 60

Efficiency

The panels achieve 15.2% efficiency in standard testing conditions, which places them below the others on this list and is also a little below the industry standard. Bear in mind that polycrystalline panels are often a little less efficient than the mono equivalents and this is reflected in lower prices.

Durability

The module comes with a 10 year manufacturer’s warranty in addition to the standard 25 year performance warranty. The panels are not as rigorously tested as some others on the list but will stand up to everyday use quite handily.

Conclusion

These panels are amongst the least effective on the list when it comes to pure quality, but at the same time they will generally be cheaper. For the price their performance is actually quite good, but they may not be an ideal solution for homes that can afford monocrystalline panels.

8. Canadian Solar

Canada’s primary solar manufacturer also maintains plants throughout the world, including China, and the company currently sells around 8 million solar panels every year.

CS6K-P-PG Module

This module is notable for having a double-glass design that goes a long way towards enhancing durability.

Pros and Cons

As mentioned the design ensures the panel is extremely durable, however, it is also important to remember that the panel is designed with the 1500V system architecture in mind, making it ideal for more modern installations.

This quality in design also factors into the pricing, which can be quite high for a standard residential install. The panel offers quality in regards to its slower degradation and high durability, but at the same time some homeowners may elect for other panels based on the cost.

Specs

Dimensions: 1650mm x 992mm
Power Output: Approx 255-260W
Weight: 23kg
Cell Size: 156mm x 156mm
Amount of Cells Used: 60

Efficiency

The design ensures that the panel doesn’t degrade in the same way as many of its contemporaries, which in turn means it maintains higher levels of efficiency for longer. Base efficiency in standard testing conditions ranges between 15.5% and 15.8% depending on the model.

Durability

As mentioned the design ensures the panel doesn’t degrade as quickly as others, so some consideration will need to be taken with installation as a result. It comes with a 30 year performance guarantee.

Conclusion

This is a great panel for those who want a long lasting system that maintains its effectiveness over time. While the cost is a little higher and base efficiency is lower than some models, it is still a superior choice.

9. Trina Solar

Trina Solar has expanded from its roots as an installation company to become one of the largest manufacturers in the world. They currently hold 575 patents relating to solar, which demonstrates the level of innovation that they strive for.

DC80.08: 72-cell Quadmax Module

This PV module is an excellent choice for residential properties but is also versatile enough for installation on commercial properties too.

Pros and Cons

The module is extremely efficient and operates above the industry standard of 16%. The black framed design also makes it ideal for those who worry about the aesthetic issues related to having panels installed.

Due to the quality of the panels the pricing may be an issue, but it is possible to find installers that can fit them at a reasonable price. Power output is also on the slightly lower end.

Specs

Dimensions: 1581mm x 764mm
Power Output: Approx 210-215W
Weight: 14.9kg
Cell Size: 125mm x 125mm
Amount of Cells Used: 72

Efficiency

The overall efficiency of the panel is better than the industry standard, clocking in at around 16.8% in standard testing conditions. It also offers good performance on low light days where many other panels would begin to struggle.

Durability

The company offers a 10 year manufacturers guarantee that indicates a level of confidence in the durability of the panel. This is supplemented with a 25 year performance guarantee.

Conclusion

The panel is interesting as it has smaller cells than most of its contemporaries, however it is an excellent choice thanks to its excellent design aesthetic and the fact that it is amongst the more efficient panels out there.

10. Yingli

Yingli is one of China’s premier manufacturers and it is an excellent choice for low-cost installations.

In fact, a number of installers currently operate joint programs with the group to offer solar power to homes that would otherwise not be able to afford it.

Panda 60 Cell Series

The series includes a number of modules that incorporate the same design but offer different power levels.

Pros and Cons

The fact that power levels range from 260-280W means that some flexibility is offered in regards to the system itself. The panel is also extremely efficient.

The panel itself does not have much in the way of cons, though people in Germany and Italy will need to be aware that their warranty will be subject to different conditions.

Specs

Dimensions: 1640mm x 990mm
Power Output: Between 260-280W
Weight: 18.5kg
Cell Size: 156mm x 156mm
Amount of Cells Used: 60

Efficiency

The panel is one of the best on the market, claiming efficiency levels of 19.8% in standard testing conditions. Due to the build quality of the panel degradation is also less of an issue than it is with some others.

Durability

Like many of its contemporaries the panel has a 10 year manufacturer’s warranty and it should be able to stand up to most weather conditions.

The maximum static load is 5400 Pa, which is right at the top end of the industry standards.

Conclusion

This is probably the best panel for a standard residential installation as it combines superior levels of efficiency with high quality design. Furthermore, many installers like to use this panel, which makes it quite easy to find somebody to fit the system.

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